Con Law I Sequence:


Article III Questions:

            Must have a case / controversy


            No Advisory opinions – Can have declaratory judgments..


            Adequate State grounds…. Court may elect to pass on opportunity to decide


            Created within specific jurisdiction…. All else, ….. depends.



            1. Standing

                        Actual Harm… injury in fact …. Injury in Law…

                        Nexus… must have link to law …. Not too remote.

            2. Mootness

                        Question is decided

            3. Ripeness

                        Actual harm hasn’t occurred

            4. Political Question

                        Not justiciable

                        Foreign affairs  / citizenship questions… etc. – A Plenary Power


1. presumption of Constitutionality….


2. Then Sensitize issue : Characterize : … eg. Does it burden Interstate Commerce


            Negative Implication : Presumption of Unconstitutionality.: is state law valid


3. If State law…. Is it constitutional      (Negative Implication)

            Purpose                        eg. Exercise of State’s Police Power


                        Equal application

                        Is there a better alternative       


                        Discriminatory … who affected… how balanced.



Privileges & Immunities ( P & I)….. (narrowly construed) 2 Steps: Subj matter & IC Analysis

                        When a State law discriminates against non-residents….

                        Only rights fundamental to National Unity… may provoke retaliation

                                    Freedom to work ….

                        Source of Evil arguments…. Lottery tickets

Exception :  Market participant / market regulator ( participant doesn’t ensure that they will pass P & I clause )

                        Π will win if discrim. does not bear substantial relationship to problem


            ((Note: not available to Corporations))



4. If Fed Law….

            A. Necessary & Proper….

                        Goes to Purpose : is the end within the means of Congress

                        Is it a proper exercise of authority to get to the end sought.

                        Implied power… law that has enumerated power end



            B.Interstate Commerce Clause   - is it a valid exercise.

                        Presumption of Constitutionality

            1. State lines must be crossed, or can be crossed…. Intent



            2. Channels of Interstate Commerce

            3. Instrumentalities of interstate commerce.

            4. Substantial Relation to commerce     

                        Is it substantial enough : gun at school / wheat off farm  

pre 1937 / post 1937


            C. Preemption

                        1. Conflict ... impossible to obey both simultaneously.


                                    Pervasiveness : Need for natl’l uniformity : danger of conflict


                        2. Federal occupation of the field

                        3. Consent by Congress

                        4. Supremacy Clause


5. If need to interpret Federal Law validity on state level intra state.

            i. Facially constitutional : presumption of constitutionality

            ii. Reach of federal gov’t. “as applied” to enforce the law