Strict Scrutiny

            Compelling State Objective

            Necessary Means

                        1.  Facial Racial

                        2.  As Applied Racial if law is for Racial Purpose

                        3. Fundamental Rights- must be unduly burdensome (keep people from

                                                                                                            doing it)

Privacy-  sexual preference- right to live with family- Marriage,

Sexual Relations, Child bearing-  Right to educate one’s

child as desired- 




                                    Procedural Due Process



                                    Refuse Medical Treatment

                        4. State Discrimination upon legal alienage

                                                Usually can only regulate self governing function-

                                                            mere rationality

                                                (ie.  who can run for office, vote, teach, be a policeman)


Middle Analysis

            Important Objective

            Substantially Related

                        1. Gender

                        2. Illegitimacy

                        3.  State actions on illegal aliens

Mere Rationality

            “Rational Relation”


            Rational Relation

                        1.  Wealth- Poverty is not suspect class

                        2.  Unequal Protection of homosexuals

                        3.  Public Education

                        4.  Business Regs.

                        5.  Abortion-  can regulate when baby is viable.

                                                -Minors do have to get parental consent unless judge says

its okay they can get it without parental consent.

                                                -Can provide for waiting period before abortion 24 hours

                                                -Can provide they must go through counseling before

                                                -State is not going fund your abortion

                        6.  Commercial Speech

                        7.  Federal action on alienage

                        8.  Age- not a suspect class


1.  Procedural Due Process-  State Action 14th

2.  Substantive Due Process  14th  Law impairs a right to entire population

                                                            not protected classes 

3.  Equal Protection  5th and 14th



            Sexual Preference


            Wealth- Not sensitized

4.  1st Amendment



            Medical Treatment


            Content v. Conduct

            Fighting Words

            Commercial Speech


            Prior Restraint

            Public v. Private Forum

            Right to Die-  can establish clear and convincing standard that patient wanted

                                    plug pulled.


            Denying Social Security Benefits to person’s living outside the US-  don’t have to

                                    pay because congress can regulate international travel. 




Race and Alienage (Highly Suspect Class) As Applied Analysis


            If it is intentional-  Strict scrutiny- compelling state interest  Look at:

                        1.  Disparate Impact-  Statistical Impact-  One group getting screwed

                        2.  History of the problem

                        3.  Legislative intent – purpose

                        4.  Is test fairly administered. 

            If not intentional go to mere rationality analysis


Race and Alienage are suspect class-  if facial discriminatory – strict scrutiny.


Affirmative Action- Strict Scrutiny

            1.  Narrowly Tailored

            2.  No Quotas-  Considered a quota if race is only factor used

            3.  Correcting a specific past wrong- can’t be general racism – racism has to be in

                                                                                                                        particular field



            Self-Government function-  mere rationality

            Gaining benefit from taxes- strict scrutiny

            Illegal Aliens- intermediate scrutiny  for state law

                                    Fed law- mere rationality because feds have interest in contolling

                                                            federal affairs





1st Amendment Rights

            1.  Importance of Right (always important)

            2.  Nature and scope of restraint (Burden on Individual)

            3.  Government Interest (Purpose)

            4.  Narrowly Tailored (Application)

                                    Vague Laws  (5th Amendment, Criminal Due Process)

                                    1.  Fail to give adequate notice of what conduct is prohibited

                                    2.  Invite arbitrary and discriminatory enforcement

                                    3.  Cause people to steer out of boundaries which has chilling



                                    Overbroad  (14th Amendment)

                                    1.  Prohibits more than what is allowed to prohibit


Speech Gov’t Can Regulate

            1.  Fighting words

            2.  Obscenity   

            3.  Defamation

            4.  Commercial Speech





1.  Content v. Conduct

            Is it content or conduct based?

2.  If it is Content Based:

            1.  Can the gov’t regulate the speech  (Fighting words, obscenity, defamation,

                                                                                    commercial speech)

            2.  If Commercial speech, in entitled limited const. protection

            3.  Is there special circumstances?  Political campaign or Public employee

                                                                                    Special rules apply

            4.  If none of the above, strict scrutiny applies


3.  Is it Conduct Based? (As applied)- Content neutral

            1.  Does it restrict expressive conduct?

            2.  Does the restriction restrict content of speech?




4.  What type of Forum are we in?

            1. Public- regulate Time, Place, & Manner

            2. Non-Public Forum- reasonably related restrictions


5.  Prior Restraint

            1. Presumption of Unconstitutionality


6.  Vague or Overbroad